Harvard Style Papers
Research writing is a form of academic writing that requires the use of various academic writing styles that are stipulated differently depending on the institution of learning as well as the field of study under which the research is being conducted. Each field of study has a preferred academic style that can be applied in the writing of scholarly works that fall under its category. The most commonly used academic writing styles in Harvard writing style, APA, MLA, Turabian style and ASA writing styles. In this particular case the use of Harvard writing style in writing Harvard style papers shall be highlighted and how the rule of the style apply to the writing of the Harvard style papers.
In Harvard style papers the insertion of a citation of the relevant source cited within the body of the research paper’s text prior to the cited material or just immediately there after. This should be later accompanied by a full reference to the source cited at the end of the Harvard style papers within the bibliography section. The Harvard style papers rely on the author-date citation format that makes use of the authors last or surname and date of publication as a means to cite the sources used. At times the Harvard style papers also include dates in the in-text citations when direct quotations of texts have been made from the original material used this may also be applicable when the writer has done paraphrasing.
In-text citations may take the following formats: There was an observed increase in the number cases of HIV in Africa during the late 80’s (Johnson, 2001. pp 2) or According to Johnson (2001, pp 2) there was an observed increase in the number cases of HIV in Africa during the late 80’s. In the reference section of the Harvard style papers the reference would appear in a format similar to this one: Johnson, R. I.1994. The spread of HIV Aids in Africa, Harper Perennial Publishers: New York.
In Harvard style papers if the authors involved are more than one but less than three all their last names are included: The result showed a negative yield on the score (Johnson, James & Betty, 2001). However, if they are more than three, then the writer has to use the short form et.al. to stand for “and the rest” after the last author’s last name or surname. An example of in-text citation for more than three authors would be as follows (Tomlinson et.al. 2005). In Harvard style papers this is implies that there are other more writers that can be viewed in the reference section who are actually tied to the authorship of the work. The reference list of a Harvard style papers should include a reference list at the end of the work on its own exclusive page.
The references within a Harvard style papers should be ordered in an alphabetical order depending on the surnames of the author/s. At times a Harvard style papers may have more than two references by the same authors, and in such cases these should be arranged in a chronological order, so as to create a differentiation. In order to fully reference a book the author/s names should be included as well as the title, year of publication, the edition number, place of publication and the publishing company. Referencing of journals within Harvard style papers requires the inclusion of journal volumes and issue number for easy follow up in referencing.